Industrialized Parametric Facade
OpenSky is the biggest outdoor mall in Madrid with 75.000 sqm space for shopping, restaurants, cinemas, etc. The project is subdivided into different volumes surrounded by a curved white ceiling that merges all of them and protects the entrances and the pedestrian areas. Furthermore, it is the biggest parametric prefabricated facade built in Spain with a total length of 3.5 kilometres and a surface of 23.000 sqm. It is subdivided in modules between 1.20 – 3.50 meters length that sometimes acts as a ceiling, a cornice, a facade, or even as railing elements. There are 2.031 different modules, and each one has specific parameters, different substructure and different auxiliary elements. All those elements that set the module (stell structure, L shape profiles, joints, screws, etc.) even the geometry of the module itself is produced via algorithms. This working process allows avoiding monotonous and tedious work setting a substantial control of the project establishing naming and production protocols necessary for the modules’ industrial production. Besides, the next tasks have been carried out by our team:
-Coordination between different 3D models (structural models, MEP models, facade models…). Analysis of clashes, reports, corrections and coordination with third-party suppliers.
-Redefine, optimize and rationalize the initial geometry to manufacture the industrialized facade using digital tools.
-Design of the auxiliary structure to support the modules.
-Developing 3D models with the geometry and information required by the client.
-Shop drawings for the manufacturer to produce the facade modules using 1cm Krion panels.
-Construction drawings for assembly and construction purposes.
-Bill of quantities for every module (sqm of Krion, linear meters of structure, joints, screws, linear meters of welding, etc.)
A federated model is developed with all the different disciplines and parts of the project. Each section is produced individually for checking purposes verifying the construction feasibility and overall aesthetics.
Construction Site Pictures
3D Model vs Reality
The prefabricated modules are manufactured in a factory and assembled directly on site. Those pieces are produced using digital tools from the 3D model, so the geometry employed for fabrication purposes is the same as the one used for construction drawings. Furthermore, the 3D model represents a digital twin of the construction site allowing us to predict problems and improve assembly efficiency.
For construction efficiency and clash detection purposes, a structural model is developed from point cloud scanning files. Using point cloud technology prevents many errors and enables us to produce an accurate 3D model to manufacture the prefabricated pieces with exact dimensions and optimize the construction process.
OpenSky construction model is subdivided into different files due to computer performance. On each file, algorithms develop the programmed operations (geometry optimization, naming conventions, detail modelling, etc.) so, finally, we obtain an accurate and detailed 3D but without compromising computer performance. The construction planning is also replicated in the file subdivisions, so krion modules are manufactured following construction requirements.
Each project module is developed individually (2.031 different modules) following the same construction and assembling rules. Algorithms are used to produce every module, ensuring a simplified construction process, a fabrication-aware geometry, and improving production timing (on-site assembly and off-site manufacturing). Every module on the project has its shop drawings, bill of quantities and naming system, so everything is measured, controlled and charged to the client.
Algorithms improve design processes, production speed and construction accuracy. We have designed the methods that built, manufactured, and explained the project to all the agents and third-party suppliers involved in the construction process.